Continued from Volume #1, Issue #2
Orientations 1 to 3 refers what a “culture” believes to be the best ways by which people should relate to one another.
1. Independent or Dependent oriented Some cultures rewards individuals for standing out, empowering them to make decisions on their own, while other cultures insist that individuals fit into the group, making sure that no one does anything without the consent and support of others.
2. Hierarchy or Egality oriented Cultures might insist on honouring a societal hierarchy, structure, and organization, and they do so with all sorts of perks: titles, rank, different signs of respect, different roles for men and woman, and so on. Other cultures deemphasize the importance of such things, preferring to treat everyone as equals.
3. Rule or Relationship oriented A culture might place a value on devising system for organizing life, creating interconnected rules and regulations that must apply universally to all, while another culture might place more emphasis on the personal relationships that exist among people as the determinant of how to do things. Orientations below describes how people behaves in a particular situation.
4. Monochronic or Polychronic oriented Cultures might place a great deal of importance on managing and controlling time.
5. Risk-Taking or Risk-Averse oriented Some cultures might move quickly with a limited amount of information, while other cultures need a great deal of information in order to make even a small decision.
6. Past or Future oriented Do the people put more of their energy into maintaining what they already have, or do they value change for change’s sake?
7. Direct or Indirect Communicator oriented All societies make decisions about how they fit, process, and deal with the larger world. This means how that culture communicates, think, and plans.
8. Process or Result oriented One culture might place the greater emphasis on the process by which goals are achieved, while another culture places the greater emphasis on the goal itself, regardless of how it’s achieved.
9. Formal or Informal oriented Cultures might value the formal, established, reliable, and in some cases almost ritualized way or doing things, while other cultures might value change, informality, and spontaneity.